Anti-Suit Injunction Denied to Husband: Supreme Court Judgment in Dinesh Singh Thakur vs. Sonal Thakur

Anti-suit injunctions have become a vital tool in the legal arsenal to prevent parties from pursuing cases in foreign courts that overlap with ongoing proceedings in India. The Supreme Court of India, in the case of Dinesh Singh Thakur vs. Sonal Thakur, delved into the complexities of anti-suit injunctions and provided valuable insights into their application. In this blog post, we will analyze the key aspects of this landmark judgment and understand its implications.


The case involved Dinesh Singh Thakur and Sonal Thakur, whose marriage took place in the United States of America (USA). Both parties obtained US citizenship and “PIO” (Person of India Origin) status. Subsequently, the appellant-husband filed a petition under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, in Gurgaon, seeking divorce, while the respondent-wife filed a divorce petition in a Florida court. In response, the husband sought an anti-suit injunction in India to restrain the wife from pursuing the divorce case abroad.

The Points of Consideration

The Supreme Court was tasked with determining whether the appellant-husband was entitled to an anti-suit injunction against the respondent-wife.

Principles Governing Anti-Suit Injunctions

Before delving into the specific case, the Court reiterated the principles governing the grant of anti-suit injunctions. Such injunctions are intended to prevent parties from instituting or prosecuting cases in foreign courts. They are granted sparingly and require a careful consideration of the facts and circumstances. The Court clarified that Indian courts have the power to issue anti-suit injunctions to parties under their jurisdiction.

Indian Court and US Court in International Divorce Case -Anti-Suit Injunction Denied to Husband

Provisions of Section 41 of the Specific Relief Act

The Court cited Section 41 of the Specific Relief Act, which lists instances where injunctions cannot be granted. This includes restraining someone from prosecuting a judicial proceeding pending at the institution of the suit or from instituting or prosecuting proceedings in a court not subordinate to the court from which the injunction is sought. However, the Court also examined exceptions to these rules.

Analysis and Decision

The Court examined the merits of the case and the convenience of the parties. It noted that the respondent-wife was amenable to the personal jurisdiction of the Indian court and permanently residing in India. The Court emphasized that the injunction was not necessary to prevent a multiplicity of proceedings, and the respondent’s action in the US court did not automatically mean success in securing a divorce on grounds not recognized under Indian law. Moreover, the parties being permanent citizens of the US meant that the US court also had concurrent jurisdiction.


The Supreme Court dismissed the appeal, stating that the proceedings in the foreign court were not oppressive or vexatious. The judgment provided valuable guidance on the application of anti-suit injunctions, reaffirming the principles of equity and comity in granting such relief.

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